Friday, June 10, 2016

Exogenous Ancestry – Proposing a Replacement for NPE

If I were genetic genealogy king for a day, I would replace the term “Non-Paternity Event (NPE)” with a more comprehensive term – specifically, “Exogenous Ancestry.”

Exogenous ancestry? That’s a mouthful, but what does it mean?  Well, it’s a term that I have borrowed from biological studies to explain some of the discontinuity of single source surnames with Y-DNA from outside of the family in question.  I have been contemplating for some time of using a different term from what is now commonly used in genetic genealogy – non-paternity event (NPE).

Bryan Sykes and Catherine Irven (2000) first used non-paternity event in the context of genetic genealogy to explain haplotypes that differed from the typical Y-DNA signature of a surname.  It was a borrowed term as well, as it was used in anthropology and sociology where the presumed father was not the father of a child.  Generally, this referred to infidelity on the part of the mother. 

In genetic genealogy circles, the International Society of Genetic Genealogy’s Wiki cites least 13 different categories which have been considered as non-paternity events.  While infidelity is one of these, there are other scenarios where genetic genealogists have used this moniker to describe the discontinuity between surnames and ancestry.  

What's the Beef?

The term non-paternity event and its synonyms don’t neatly fit every situation where it is used.  It assumes that the designated father (and even the child) is unaware of the child's ancestry.  This is not always the case. 

In some cases, there may not be a father in the picture and the surname traveled from mother to child.  The birth father’s name was not associated with the child and there was no “official” father from whom false paternity could be claimed.  It wouldn’t be a surname discontinuity as it continued from the mother; it would be a Y-DNA discontinuity.

In the case of complete adoptions, not only would the paternity be different, but the maternity would be as well.  Using a term such as “Exogenous Ancestry” would better fit full adoption circumstances as not only is the paternal DNA different, so is the maternal DNA.  This term would be applicable to discontinuities found in mitochondrial and autosomal DNA. 

Name changes are often considered NPEs – however, these can be voluntary and NPE doesn’t fit the situation – I am not sure any term other than “name change” would fit this scenario.

Finally, the term appears to pinpoint a given “event”; however, we may not be able to identify a specific generation when this discontinuity occurred.  While a person’s recorded ancestry may have confirmation going back several centuries, Y-DNA tells a different story.  Yes, there was some sort of misattributed paternity, but where did this “event” occur in the lineage?  Can we find it – sometimes, but not always.  We know that somewhere along the ancestral line exogenous DNA entered the picture. 

Where did this Term, Exogenous Ancestry, Originate?

It isn’t an original term, although I have been sparingly using “exogenous Y-DNA” since 2012 to soften the blow when reporting NPEs in my study. While recently performing Google searches for terminology relating to DNA from outside the family/clan/tribe, I found it used in the study of wolf and coyote populations of North America. 

Lupine biologists used it to describe DNA found in certain wolf populations that originated from outside the pack – sometimes considered an unusual occurrence.  In addition, it was also used when wolf DNA was present in populations of coyotes – especially in areas where no known wolf populations existed – hence an ancestral occurrence (von Holt, Kays, Pollinger, & Wayne, 2016).

Exogenous ancestry is broader term than non-paternity events, it is already used in mammalian DNA studies, and it is a better fit to a variety of DNA discontinuities. Will it gain in popularity?  I hope, but sometimes teaching an old dog, wolf, or coyote new tricks isn’t that easy.  I would be interested in hearing your spin on this term.


Non-Paternity Event (n.d.). International Society of Genetic Genealogy Wiki. Retrieved June 10, 2016 from

Sykes, B., & Irven, C. (2000). Surnames and the Y chromosome.  The American Journal of Human Genetics, 66(4), 1417-1419. doi:10.1086/302850

von Holt, B. M., Kays, R., Pollinger, J. P., & Wayne, R. K. (2016). Admixture mapping identifies introgressed genomic regions in North American canids. Molecular Ecology, 25(11), 2443-2453.  doi:10.1111/mec.13667

Friday, February 12, 2016

He Inspired a Genealogist – Mr. George T. Ihnat

Today, I received notification that a teacher I had in junior high school and high school had passed away on Wednesday, February 10, 2016.  I hadn’t seen Mr. George T. Ihnat since the day I graduated in June 1973; however, he had a profound effect on me by instilling a love for family history.
George T. Ihnat in 1972
Beginning in 1967, I attended Park Terrace Junior High School in North Versailles, PA – where we moved from teacher to teacher instead of having one teacher all day.  I barely remember any of my instructors from Park Terrace, as there were so many – but one who made a lasting impression was Mr. George T. Ihnat who taught 8th grade English. I would later have him as my 11th grade American literature instructor at East Allegheny High School.
As I had many great teachers during my life, I can’t say I remember the specifics of the vast amounts of knowledge he imparted in either class; however, I do recall an assignment that had influenced my primary life’s interest.  One day in 1968, Mr. Ihnat assigned us a project to create a family tree – a typical project that occurs during many people’s school experiences.  I hadn’t thought about my ancestry until then and I haven’t looked back.
The assignment prompted me to ask my mother about her and my dad’s families.  Since my dad had passed away in 1962, I knew very little concerning my paternal lineage.  Mom knew my dad’s mother’s family, but only my grandfather’s name and a few scattered details about his siblings. She went into her secretary and pulled out a piece of folded paper in my father’s handwriting that had the names and dates of my father’s grandparents. He had jotted down these notes after visiting relatives in Ohio during the summer of 1960. She also found an old obituary about my great-great grandmother, Sarah Ann Jones Merriman, who was the oldest woman in McKeesport, PA at the time of her death in 1929.

Later that day, my mom and I went to McKeesport-Versailles Cemetery and found Sarah Merriman's and my second great grandfather’s grave – John Merriman was a Civil War veteran in the 101st Pennsylvania Volunteers. My research also inspired me to query my only living grandparent – my mother’s mother about her lineage. I was given a wealth of information about her and my grandfather’s sides of the family.

I also asked my Aunt Nath, my dad’s oldest half-sister who attended the same church as us, if she could provide some additional information. She gladly wrote down names of family members that she could remember. That was a little over 47 years ago and I still have all of these notes and clippings. It got me interested in family history and this was later rekindled in 1978 with the return of my great-grandparents’ family bible to its bloodline.

Mr. Ihnat’s assignment continues to inspire me even to this day in discovering family – old and new. This interest has expanded from archives, library, and cemetery research to DNA testing of relatives – a keen hobby thanks to an English teacher who went beyond the scope of grammar and composition with an assignment about a family tree.
Mr. Ihnat:  I am sorry that I never connected with your during my adult years to tell you how that one assignment changed my life forever. Thanks to you it did. While I am hard pressed to remember any of my junior high teachers, you’ll never be forgotten. Rest in Peace. 

Sunday, January 10, 2016

Case Study: Blaine Bettinger

How did you enter the field of genetic genealogy? What and who influenced you?  Were you an innovator, an early adopter, or are you still a laggard who hasn’t tested? Although, I sent in my first DNA kit in 2007, I still feel like a DNA adolescent among some of my peers. If I had to categorize my experiences, I would rank myself in the early majority.   

That first kit was inspired by the article “Shaking the Family Tree with Recreational Genetics” in Newsweek.  I saw it November 2007 at my optometrist’s office and I showed it to my wife who is adopted. Within days, Ancestry had a sale on their Y-DNA and mtDNA tests and both of us took the plunge. 

By the end of the year, I found out that my haplogroups were I1a (old designation) and H.  My wife’s mtDNA was also an H.  We were not too impressed by these results, as they told us little; however, my haplogroups confirmed what I already believed concerning these lines:  my patrilineal line was likely Norse when taken to its logical conclusion and my matrilineal line came from central Europe.  Both haplogroups pointed in these directions. To me, this was still a giant genetic leap.

During 2008, Ancestry partnered with two other companies:  Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation (SMGF) and 23andMe.  I signed up for accounts at both and submitted my Y-DNA and mtDNA results to Sorenson. At that time, 23andMe only offered health and trait information for a hefty price tag ($499), so I passed on their product, as I wasn’t interested in spending that kind of money for this info.  I had a login account, but no data of my own – yet.

Fast forward to 2010.  Wanting to know more about my genetic ancestry, I subscribed to a wonderful online resource, the now defunct, and began learning about this new service at 23andMe called Relative Finder (now DNA Relatives).  DNA-Forums also alerted me in March 2010 that 23andMe was having a month-long sale of their product with $200 off the $499 price – it was called the Oprah sale, as it had been advertised on her show.  Curious, I bit er spit and had my results in May.  I also encouraged my brothers, mother, wife, children, and cousins to test and thus began a process of collecting relatives’ DNA.  Needles to say, I was hooked. We now have 50 of our relatives tested.

That same year, GeneTree (part of the SMGF family and also now defunct) had a $79 sale on their Y-DNA-46 test and I began my surname project with six participants.  We were able to confirm that, except for those with non-paternal events in their ancestry, everyone with our surname and its variants came from a single progenitor.  This was something we couldn’t have done with traditional genealogical records as they didn’t go back far enough.

But the more I learned, the more I questioned.  I was curious about the X-chromosome, as my match to my brothers was extremely small.  So with a Google search in May 2010, I found two enlightening posts on the X at Blaine Bettinger’s blog The Genetic Genealogist.  He made it easy to understand and his fan charts were a true blessing to me and others trying to wrap our collective brains around the differences in transmission of the X among males and females. For those posts on the X-Chromosome, see the following links:  “Unlocking the Genealogical Secrets of the X Chromosome” and “More X-Chromosome Charts.”

Since 2010, a number of changes have occurred.  Ancestry no longer offers Y-DNA and mtDNA tests, DNA-Forums vanished out of thin air in the middle of the night in early 2012, and GeneTree and SMGF were absorbed by Ancestry and folded.  Gone, gone, and gone.  Several aspects of Genetic Genealogy, however, have remained constant; one of those is Dr. Blaine T. Bettinger’s blog The Genetic Genealogist. 

Just recently, I enrolled in a graduate Social Media Course at Southern New Hampshire University for professional development. This week we were challenged to write a case study on a “thought leader” who used social media.  Since Blaine’s blog was the first I encountered on the subject, I wanted to analyze his work.  He agreed and supplied some answers to very specific questions that I posed.

Blaine has influenced well over a million individuals and continues to enlighten others on a daily basis.  He has given me permission to reproduce this case study here.  I hope you learn something about The Genetic Genealogist and have a great appreciation of the power bloggers in our discipline. 

Friday, December 4, 2015

Additional DNA Resources from the Owston/Ouston One-Name Study

Since I have a second genealogy blog dealing with my Owston/Ouston one-name study, not all of my articles on DNA are found as part of the Lineal Arboretum blog. To aid readers in finding these other posts, I have listed these below with their appropriate links.

An Analysis of Fourth Cousins and Other Near Distant Relationships – this particular post analyzes matching autosomal DNA segments of family members descending from five sons of a common ancestral couple. This study includes 10 third cousins, once removed; 5 third cousins, twice removed; 43 fourth cousins; and 34 fourth cousins, once removed.

Ancestry Composition of Three Sets of Siblings – this post looks at the differences in the predicted ancestries of siblings as reported by 23andMe. The siblings include three brothers, a brother and a sister, and two sisters.

Another F2642 Y-DNA Mutation Reported – this post reports a second, but unrelated participant, who the National Genographic 2.0 test had reported as being I-F2642. In addition, this individual had an additional downstream SNP not shared by our family.

A New Y-DNA Mutation Found in the Owston/Ouston Family – this post from 2012 that was discovered with the National Genographic 2.0 test. To our knowledge, our participant was the first to acknowledge a new I1 mutation in the Z140 family. The newly discovered SNP was that of F2642. Since this announcement in 2012, numerous men have also reported sharing the I-F2642 Y-DNA haplotype.


Saturday, November 29, 2014

It's Just Another Brick from the Wall

Ask any genealogist to list his or her frustrations and inevitably the term “brick wall” will surface in the discussions.  Brick walls are points when all clues regarding an individual are seemingly non-existent.  In most cases, these brick walls occur as we go backwards in our lineage and we reach a point where an ancestor’s identity is unknown. 

For Americans, this can happen within a few generations as record keeping was sparse, spotty, or non-existent in some locals during the 19th century.  Municipalities, counties, and states had varying degrees of public record keeping. In other words, there is no official US standard and American genealogy can be difficult at best.  

When we begin our genealogical quest, our mission of discovering each ancestor is actually a series of brick walls that will be either knocked down with extensive research or will remain solid.  Sometimes this happens with one piece of direct evidence, or it only occurs with constant chiseling with indirect documentary or DNA evidence (see example).  Not only will we encounter brick walls while seeking our direct ancestors, but we will also run headlong into the same barriers when we trace the descendents of those ancestors as well – our collateral lines.

One of My Walls

For 37 years, I’ve been searching for my great-grandfather’s sister with very little luck.  Over time, I've been able to ascertain that Frances Jenett Owston was born in Allegheny City (now Pittsburgh’s North Side), Pennsylvania in 1852, but I never could find her as an adult.  I first became aware of her existence in late 1977 when my great-grandparents’ family bible surfaced after being out of the bloodline for nearly 50 years.  Between the pages of this large presentation bible was a piece of heavy card stock with 11 locks of hair; each one was identified and dated. 

Some individuals had two samples from different periods of their lives including my great-grandfather who had one dated from 1858 when he was four years old and one from twenty-two years later.  While most of the names were easily identifiable as being members of my great-grandparents’ household, two were not.  One was a Grandma Ritchey, 79 years of age  – who was eventually determined to be my third great grandmother.  The other was for Fannie Owston; her sample was dated 1859. 

The other Fannie Owston - Frances W. Owston
For 27 years, I had assumed that this was my great-grandfather’s first cousin, Frances W. Owston, who also lived in Pittsburgh.  Since my great-grandfather’s family was musical and this Fannie Owston was a music teacher, it seemed plausible.  Confirming the identification was problematic, as I couldn’t initially find my second great-grandparents in the 1860 census.   Despite repeated searching of the census records, I was unable to find their listing until 2007. The problem was that the family was listed under an incorrect but similar surname and the head of the house’s (my second great-grandfather) initials were transposed.  See my post on this. 

Although finding the census in 2007 provided additional evidence of her existence as my great-grandfather’s sister, I was able to determine the identity of Fannie Owston three years earlier.  While browsing through the genealogical books in the Carnegie Public Library in Pittsburgh, I found Ken McFarland’s book Births, Marriages, and Deaths of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania 1852-1854.  McFarland’s a diligent researcher who has transcribed and indexed numerous records from the Greater Pittsburgh area.

While in 1980 I had previously looked at the microfilm of Allegheny County’s records from this period, I found no one in our family listed and never revisited these documents.  This time, however, I was interested in McFarland’s book, not for my own family, but for siblings of 1200 Pennsylvania Civil War soldiers that I am tracing from womb to the tomb.  I was hoping to find maiden names of the mothers of some of these soldiers. 

Click to see larger record.
As I opened the book, there it was on page one – and it was even registration number one: the birth record of Frances Owston daughter of John G. Owston and Martha N. French.  She was born at 7 PM on July 13, 1852 in the fourth ward of Allegheny City, PA.  Since this time, I’ve searched diligently for Frances Owston, but outside of the additional listing in the 1860 census, I’ve had no luck. 

The family had moved from Pittsburgh to Canada in about 1857 and was in Detroit in 1860 where my second great-grandmother died that same year.  In 1995, I had traveled to Detroit to research my second great grandparents.  While I found some information on the family, nothing on Frances surfaced.  No one else was buried in the plot where my second great grandmother was buried, so it seemed plausible that Fannie survived the family’s eight year stay in Michigan.

By 2009, I became aware of my family’s 1863 move from Detroit to East Saginaw along with my second great-grandfather’s marriage to and subsequent divorce from Permelia Condon.  This heretofore unknown tidbit was a serendipitous discovery through searching my surname in Google Books.  A published biography and photo of my second great-grandfather with information about his work in Saginaw led to the discovery of his second wife.  After the couple separated, the family moved back to Allegheny City in 1868. 

Unfortunately, Detroit, East Saginaw, and Wayne and Saginaw counties were not registering vital information during the 1860s and 1870s.  If Fannie had moved back to Allegheny County with her father and brother, chances of finding her if she married or died were marginal.  Allegheny County did not begin registrations of marriages until September 1885 and Allegheny City did not register births or deaths until July 1882. I had already checked all of these records in the past for anyone with my surname.  If death or marriage occurred before the 1880s, I might never find her.  But, I never stopped searching.

Background on the Records

While Pennsylvania is currently ranked at sixth in population, it was the second most populous state for much of its history.  You would think that a vital “keystone” of a state might have policies in place to register births, marriages, and deaths – but alas, it did not for many years.  In the mid 19th century, Pennsylvania attempted to institute registrations of births, marriages, and deaths.  This 1852 registration was unsuccessful, and the state dropped the experiment after two years.

One problem was that registration was not compulsory and many individuals failed to comply.  Frances Owston was the first to be registered in Pennsylvania’s second largest county and third largest city, but her birth occurred seven months after the law was effected and was not registered by the physician until three months later. Her brother’s birth two years later in the same town was never registered with the state.

Eventually, individual municipalities began to register births and deaths over the next 50 years.  Pittsburgh, the second largest city in the Commonwealth, began in 1870.  As previously stated, Pittsburgh’s neighbor to the north, Allegheny City, waited 12 more years to register birth and death records.  Other towns followed suit but only when it was convenient to do so. 

Additionally, none of these registrations through 1905 were mandatory.  A case in point is my father’s siblings. All five were born before 1906 and two died in early childhood during the same period; none of these events were registered even though the municipalities were actively registering births and deaths.   

The practice with marriages and divorces in Pennsylvania was different.  As of September 30, 1885, Pennsylvania required that all counties register marriages and these be on file in the local county courthouse.  Marriage registration was mandatory and the same process exists today.  Divorce records were registered with the county’s Prothonotary beginning in 1804.  Statewide mandatory vital registration, however, did not begin until 1906, which is late considering the population of Pennsylvania and that it prides itself on being the second state to ratify the Constitution.  

Fast forward

After November 2014’s election, Governor Tom Corbett may not think he has a friend in Pennsylvania, but he certainly has a friend in me, as he signed Act 110 (Pennsylvania Vital Records Bill SB-361) into law on December 15, 2011. I was one of the many people to sign several petitions over the last 10 years to hasten the Commonwealth to begin this process.  The bill went into effect on February 13, 2012 and the Division of Vital Records transferred all death certificates 50 years old and older and birth certificates 105 years old and older to the Pennsylvania State Archives in Harrisburg.  

Declaring these documents as old records made them easily available to the public and the old paper indexes for both became listed on the Pennsylvania Department of Health’s website.  The indices, however, are PDF scans of the typewritten copies and are laborious to use – but, at least, they are there. Copies of the original records are now available to anyone through the State Archives for $5.00.  This is providing you have the registration number from the indices.  From my personal experience, the turnaround of the processing takes less than a week.

How important is this move?  Being a native Pennsylvanian and an avid researcher of Pennsylvania records, this was a dream come true.  In the past, Vital Records’ processing was slow (up to a month); they could reject you if you were not a blood descendent or legal representative of the person on the birth certificate (a caveat on their forms); you were not allowed to copy, photograph, or publish an image of the record; and the service was expensive to use, especially if you simultaneously wanted numerous certificates. Prior to the transfer, a death record would cost $10, unless you didn’t know the date and then an additional search fee was of $10 was charged for a search of ten years.

While looking for my great-grandfather’s first cousin’s death record, I got stung for $50. Not knowing the date of his passing, I ordered a copy of the certificate with a 10 year window (1920-1929) search – that was $20. No document was found.  I ordered another search at $20 for the years of 1910-1919. This was also inconclusive.  Several years later while perusing a church’s records on site, I found his 1923 burial date – the cemetery provided an exact date of death.  I ordered the certificate again ($10) with the exact date and received it.  Unfortunately, Vital Records did a sloppy job on the first search and I was out $30. 

Further Movement

In August 2012, the Pennsylvania State Archives and Ancestry signed an agreement for the company to digitize and upload the records.  These would be freely available to Pennsylvania residents if they register at  All Ancestry customers would also have access as part of their individual memberships. 

On April 18, 2014, Ancestry announced that it had uploaded the images and database information on death records from 1906-1924.  As with many individuals, I began searching for family and others.  As with the database and the certificates, there were some issues that I will address in future posts.  The second group, 1925-1944, went live on June 24, 2014.  The records through 1963 completed the death certificate process on October 24, 2014.

Birth certificates for 1906 will be completed in March 2015.  No timeline has been communicated regarding the records for 1907-1909.  Until the end of this year, only the indices for 1906-1908 are currently available. 

Brick Wall Smashed

In July 2014, I decided to see if Ancestry had completed any further uploading of death certificates.  They had, and I did my customary search of my surname.  To my surprise, I found a Frances Beecher Smith who was the daughter of John Owston and Martha French.  This was my great-grandfather’s missing sister.

Click for larger version.
After doing additional research in Pittsburgh, I began to piece together her story:  two failed marriages, a bitter rivalry with another woman, the birth of two children, the loss of a grandchild, and the finding of another.  While she never owned her own home, what she did have was far more precious than gold.  She lived a long life and had the support of a family that dearly loved her and to whom she reciprocated that love.

My biggest surprise about Fannie was that she lived less than 15 miles from my childhood home.  Outside of the records I previously mentioned, I had never encountered her in any other until now.  In fact, I had walked across her grave (which is unmarked) on at least four occasions looking for others in the same cemetery.   No stone is present, and even if there was one, I wouldn’t have recognized the name Frances Smith. 

My brick wall - Frances J. Owston Beecher Smith
In addition, I have found Fannie’s only surviving great-grandchild who lived in the same home with her for two decades.   We have corresponded and talked on the phone concerning the differences and similarities in our respective families.  In addition, this third cousin turns out to be a double third cousin as I am related to both her maternal grandparents.  We still have a lot of catching up to do yet.

Thanks to the 48 members of the Pennsylvania Senate and 194 members of Pennsylvania House of Representatives who voted to pass this act, to Governor Tom Corbett who signed the bill into law, and to the forward thinking folks at the Pennsylvania State Archives and Ancestry for collaborating on this important project.

I have already viewed several hundreds of these certificates and in our next installment I will deal with death records, primarily those from Pennsylvania, and their importance as genealogical evidence and the inherent problems regarding these records as sources of information.  


References (2014).  Pennsylvania, Births, 1852-1854. Database available at (2014). Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1963. Database available at

Gruber, T. (2014).  People for Better Pennsylvania Historical Records Access (PaHR-Access): Frequently Asked Questions.

Gruber, T. (2014).  People for Better Pennsylvania Historical Records Access (PaHR-Access): Genealogists, Researchers, Family Historians.

McFarland, K.T.H. (1999). Births, Marriages, and Deaths of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania 1852-1854. Apollo, PA: Closson Press.

Pennsylvania Department of Health. (2014). Act 110 – Public Records (formerly known as Senate Bill 361).

Pennsylvania General Assembly. (2012). Senate Bill 361; Session 2011-2012.

Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission. (2014). Vital Statistics Records at the Pennsylvania State Archives.